Termeh fabric is the most traditional kind of Persian textile. It is produced in Yazd city. Termeh has a high density, so it is regarded as a handicraft. Nowadays Termeh is woven through a semi-automatic tissue processing machine. The older the piece of Termeh is, the more expensive it will be. Nowadays Termeh is woven in factories to make all sort of things like tablecloths, cushions handbags and so on. In the past Termeh was also used to make curtains, garments, robes, and even royal headwear. Adding embroidery to Termeh makes it elegant and exquisite. In Serme Doozi, a Persian style of embroidery, different yarns are used to create elaborate designs on Termeh.
From the very early times, the land of Persia played a key role in the world’s trading. Being in the middle of the Silk Road gave much credit to this extremely vast country which encompassed nearly eight million square kilometers. Although the name of the Silk Road implies the importance of trading silk from China, many other goods were exchanged between the empires along which Persian carpets and Persian fabrics where were distinguishable.
The first step in weaving Termeh is to prepare its raw materials. Termeh is usually woven from wool and silk. White wool is the most common wool used in weaving Termeh because it can be dyed with any color you want. Weaving Termeh requires good wool with tall fibers. After preparing the high quality wool, the first step is to clean the wool from the fat and dirt, which should be done before dying.
In Iran, two methods are used to bleach the wool:
The color of Iranian Termeh is usually made from natural plants. This color may be obtained from the roots, trunk, leaves, flower, fruit or skin of plants. Because it is very difficult to maintain wool fabrics, and they are damaged due to moisture and moth, little information is left of their color.
Termeh weaving machine is almost the same as other traditional textile machinery and is made of wood in production areas by local craftsmen. After preparing the raw materials and preparing the weaving machine, the stamping process is performed in a manner that is common in weaving other hand woven textiles, then the weaving begins.
The study of existing Termeh reflects the fact that weaving Termeh has been a very difficult and exhausting job. Weaving Termeh with traditional instruments requires a lot of time, accuracy and skill, and with the help of this device weaver can produce about 20 to 25 centimeters high quality Termeh in a day (equivalent to 8 hours of useful work). But using a Jaccard device, that actually does the work of worker called “goshvareh-kesh” in simple knitting machine, production has increased slightly and reached about 100 centimeters a day.
One of the most sensitive tasks of the weaver is the choice of color and harmony that should be done with great care. The difficulty of this job becomes clear when we realize that the warps in Termeh should all be of the same color and of the same material. Only the color of wefts could be chosen by the weaver. That is, the background is always fixed, and only the color of the text should be chosen.
In weaving Termeh another sensitive subject is the use of warps of varying thickness, as well as the texture, which means putting these warps together with each other. Because the color of the warp is stable, therefore, the viewer sees only a combination of colors that indicates the difficulty of the weaver's work.
Termeh had a variety of different uses in old times including: sewing beautiful aristocratic clothes, curtains, prayer rug and so on. Today, Termeh is used as tablecloth, sofa fabric and so on. Terme's consumers in the past have been mostly aristocrats and kings, while today they are often middle and upper classes of the society that present it as gifts for weddings, family celebrations and official ceremonies.
The Termeh industry has had a significant boom before the arrival of fabrics and textile fabrics from Western machine factories. Due to its various uses and applications, among the affluent classes, in old times it has responded to a number of consumer needs, with the number of knitting machines in Yazd reaching about 500 to 700 machines. Today, this handicraft industry is almost obsolete.
Although Termeh has a lot of variety in terms of color and design, it also follows a certain pattern. Some of the common motifs are the paisley, cypress tree, birds, fish, and geometric shapes.
The most common design on Termeh is the Paisley design. Paisley design shows a curved Cypress tree. Cypress tree was considered a sacred tree for Iranians from ancient period until now. This tree symbolizes endurance and resistance to the problems
1-Handmade Termeh is known for its seven colors, uniform and steady colors, authentic and traditional patterns, 60% viscose warp, fine linen wool and natural silk with yarn.
2-The quality of the threads and the number of colors used in the weaving process indicate the quality of Termeh. Some very valuable Termehs have up to 300 different colors used in them.
3- The number of layers in the fabric and the type of embroidery on it also adds to the value of Termeh.
To wash Termeh preferably use laundry and if you want to wash with water use lukewarm water and liquid soap. After drying, iron off the possible wrinkles. Do not use a washing machine at all.